AdReaction

Getting Gender Right

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Watch our experts discuss the report findings and get fresh new insights into the role of gender in brand strategy, creative response and media targeting.

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Gender is a sensitive topic - one that society is renegotiating across social, cultural, political and commercial spheres. To begin with, definitions of gender have progressed. Today it is widely viewed as a spectrum, rather than a simple binary. Gender roles in society are evolving too. Men and women now lead and nurture at work and at home. Whether running for office or running from sexual harassment and assault, gender pervades political realms. In business, gender has moved beyond inclusion and diversity initiatives. It is now the focus of customer experience initiatives and ad campaigns. It is a different, evolving world.

Within the marketing industry, high profile initiatives such as the Unstereotype Alliance and the Gender Equality Measure seek to eradicate harmful gender-based stereotypes. However, many brands have not kept pace with change. The gender zeitgeist has overtaken many who are still operating like it's 1999. In fact, some marketers seem to be avoiding the issue altogether, paralysed by the fear of getting it wrong. In this precarious environment, achieving a balance between acknowledging and recognising gender, while evading stereotypes that can burden a brand, isn't easy. Equally, it can be challenging to avoid the risks and repercussions presented by overstepping ambiguous, socio-cultural bounds when making too strong a gender statement. Then, there are questions of purpose – does the average laundry detergent, chocolate brand or financial services supplier really need to take a stand for gender equality? Although the practical benefit of appealing to a wider consumer base can be a clear brand priority, perhaps the moral imperative of 'doing the right thing' may be less compelling for some. And importantly, does addressing gender result in brand growth?

The gender zeitgeist has overtaken many who are still operating like it's 1999. In fact, some marketers seem to be avoiding the issue altogether, paralysed by the fear of getting it wrong.

Based on findings from this unprecedented report, marketers can feel more confident making strategic brand decisions using our comprehensive evidence and insight into gender differences in response to marketing. Analysis covers consumer responses to tens of thousands of brands, creatives and campaigns, as well as a global survey of marketers, all delivering fresh new insights into the role of gender in brand strategy, creative response and media targeting. Empowered, marketers can re-examine their understanding of gender to find a fresh equilibrium that will enable brands to flourish in this evolving environment.

Getting Gender
Wrong

Marketers think they're getting gender right. The vast majority are confident that their organisations are creating advertising that avoids gender stereotypes and contains balanced content. But more female marketers think the industry is missing a beat with on average 13% fewer women agreeing.

Marketers think they are avoiding gender stereotypes
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Source: Getting Media Right 2018 % very/ somewhat confident

Meanwhile, consumers on the other side of the scale think that marketers are getting it wrong, with 76% of female consumers and 71% of male consumers believing the way they are portrayed in advertising is completely out of touch (Kantar Consulting U.S. Yankelovich MONITOR 2015). This begs the question – what are marketers missing?

Consumer concerns are further validated by research from JWT/ Geena Davis Institute. In 'Unpacking Gender Bias in Advertising', an analysis of 2,000 Cannes Lions films from 2006 to 2016, researchers found that men speak seven times the amount women do in ads. Men get four times more screen time than women. And men are 62% more likely to be shown as 'smart'.

This data prompts disturbing questions about the nature of average, everyday advertising, considering that these striking gender inequities are based on scrutiny of the best of the best in advertising. Regardless, marketers can't escape the fact that the gendered consumer experience falls short of expectations and that perhaps there are good reasons for it.

According to the Unstereotype Alliance, not being progressive means "reinforcing rather than helping to eradicate harmful gender-based stereotypes".

Unfortunately, marketers continue to launch campaigns that collect negative consumer response and result in embarrassing climb downs. Yet it is the executions that aren't so obviously 'wrong', that go unrecognised, undiscussed or tolerated, that perhaps do the greatest disservice to consumers and brands. The reality is that a brand doesn't have to commit a major gender gaff to lose out on loyalty and market share. Ultimately, the data suggests that men, and particularly women, are not happy with the status quo and that brands can do better to connect in meaningfully different ways around gender.

Getting Gender
Targeting Right

The issue is not that marketers aren't trying to target women. Ad testing and targeting usually focuses on both genders, or is more likely to target women exclusively. Testing for static ads (print and out-of-home) are more likely to target women.

Most ads are targeted at both genders
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Source: Link global database 2018. Metric: sample breakdown by gender across ads. Grey = both genders sampled

Gender-skewed brands underperform. Compared to gender-balanced brands, male-skewed brands are valued on average US$9bn less.

Research respondent samples from Kantar's Link™ ad testing, which are broadly representative of the intended target audiences, show that females may be over-targeted in categories like laundry and household products and under-targeted in other areas, like automotive. Sometimes progressive targeting can be as simple as challenging outdated and over-simplistic assumptions. While it is true that more women than men are primary grocery shoppers, it is strange that almost 100% of the people we talk to about baby products, laundry products and household cleaners are women.

Marketers seem to be targeting according to stereotypes in some categories

% females in target

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Source: Link global database 2010-2018. Metric: sample breakdown by gender across ads

Evidence of global household decision makers from Kantar's 'Connected Life' 2017-18 supports this, while also demonstrating that most domestic buying decisions are made jointly by men and women. Gender targeting in creative approaches and media plans should therefore not often need to be exclusive to one gender or the other.

In many categories, most people of both genders are decision makers
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Source: Connected Life 2017-18

Recent trend analysis from the Link global database exploration shows a correction away from exclusive female targeting, suggesting that awareness is finally growing around gender targeting.

Some categories are starting to adopt more balanced gender targeting
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Source: Link global database 2018. Metric: % of female sample by category across all ads over time

Some of the most persuasive evidence supporting a better gender balance comes from BrandZ, the world's largest brand equity database. Multi-category analysis from 2017- 18 shows that gender-balanced brands do better than brands that skew male or female. Compared to gender-balanced brands, male-skewed brands are valued on average US$9bn less. This suggests that too many brands maintain a historic gender skew and are losing market share to brands with wider gender appeal that are liked by men and women.

Marketers need to acknowledge that while society has evolved, the industry lags in its responsiveness. The status quo is not optimal, and many brands are not meeting consumers' gender needs as well as they could be. What's more, gender-skewed brands are losing revenue to more gender-balanced brands. Supporting evidence for greater profitability through better meeting gender needs comes from BrandZ data for the home improvement retailer Home Depot. In 2014, Home Depot's 'Brand Power' was significantly stronger among men than women. Following significant efforts to reach out to women, including initiatives such as 'Do It Herself' workshops, this is no longer the case and the brand's financial value has grown significantly from $9bn in 2010 to $52.2bn in 2019.

Marketers need to rebalance brands by eliminating the dead weight of inaccurate and outdated targeting.

Gender-balanced brands drive far greater brand value. However, only one in three brands achieve this balance
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Source: BrandZ Brand Values of 219 US, UK and China brands, and gender classification of 9,560 brands in 43 countries

Getting Gender
Portrayals Right

Marketers are confident that they are creating communications that actively appeal to women and men and feature positive role models, according to Kantar's 'Getting Media Right' study, 2018. However, female marketers are again less sure than males, especially when it comes to portrayals of men.

The industry thinks their ads progressively represent women and men
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Source: Getting Media Right 2018 % very/ somewhat confident

Among ads featuring people, we found that women appear in more ads (67%) than men (60%). However, our new Link ad testing data confirms remaining bias in advertising. So when both appear, men are 38% more likely to be featured prominently than women (9% of all ads vs 6% of all ads). This is not necessarily representative of all advertising, but it does reflect a very large number of ads, brands, categories and countries around the world. Women may feature more often because many brands attempt to target women as the main household purchaser. But as we have learnt, sometimes this may be misguided. What is clear is that greater prominence of men in dual-gender advertising is likely a marker of historical precedent. Our research shows that ads featuring only women are less impactful than ads featuring only men, indicating that there is still room for improvement in how females are depicted.

The industry is struggling to optimise performance of ads featuring only women, or featuring both genders equally
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Source: Link global database 2018

...gender portrayals are not aspirational or authoritative for women or men.

Disappointingly, data from our Gender Equality Measure shows more people think women are portrayed in a way that is inappropriate (45%), rather than in a way that makes them think highly of the ad characters (40%). This gap is even wider for male portrayals (44% vs 35%).

Substantiation of these concerns comes from the Link global database, which shows that gender portrayals are not aspirational or authoritative for women or men. Women are more likely to be stereotyped as being likeable and caring.

Portrayals are rarely aspirational or authoritative for either gender
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Source: Link global database, 2018, 2,874 ads featuring women, 2,413 ads featuring men

Authoritative portrayals work well, but in different ways across genders
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Source: Link global database 2018, average percentiles

However, those ads which do manage authoritative portrayals perform exceptionally well. Authoritative (and perhaps perceived as non-stereotypical) female characters motivate audiences more strongly, increasing believability and persuading people to buy. Facial coding results show that such portrayals are surprising to viewers who show greater expressiveness. In contrast, authoritative male characters generate more branded cut-through.

Sentiment response breakdowns from the Link global database further highlight that current advertising perpetuates stereotypes. This is reflected in how male and female characters are perceived. Ads featuring female characters are seen to be less exciting, whereas viewers feel less affection towards ads that include prominent male characters.

A recent study by Kantar's Neuroscience Practice, which captured the concepts that respondents in the US intuitively associate with feminism, emphasises the importance of highlighting in communications the positive aspects of feminism – strength, caring and respect, while minimising the negatives – aggressive and radical. Overall, feminism has far more positive than negative associations. This is especially true among women, but men still have more positive intuitive associations than negative ones.

Brands championing gender equality should think 'strong but not aggressive'

What does Feminism mean to you? (Intuitive associations)

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Source: Kantar Neuroscience Practise study in the US

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Balancing strength with aggression to deliver bold, inspiring gender portrayals requires brand confidence as well as cultural sensitivity, especially in transitional cultural environments. Nike's 2017 #BelieveInMore campaign aired in the Middle East, Russia and Turkey, places where traditional acceptance of female athletes is low. The campaign depicted empowered female athlete role models, but Nike tweaked the messaging to fit the local zeitgeist.

Nike Middle East challenged social disapproval by playing off the 'What will they say about you?' tagline. Nike Russia leveraged a modified version of the traditional children's rhyme 'What are girls made of?', imbuing them with greater strength and power, and Nike Turkey unabashedly celebrated its female athletes with 'This is us'. The executions were informed by in-depth research to understand the domestic markets, delivering effective communications with an explicit gender stance.

Despite progress, gender portrayals in advertising remain stereotyped, with female depictions particularly skewed.

Despite progress, gender portrayals in advertising remain stereotyped, with female depictions particularly skewed and delivering less impact. This simple fact has enormous consequences. When we look at the bigger picture, we understand that gender stereotyping in advertising is leading to male-skewed brands which are less likely to grow. Even marketers who acknowledge gender bias may be blinded by the status quo, because they are delivering far fewer aspirational portrayals than they believe. Even advertising that is relatively successful could be more impactful if it were to eliminate hackneyed images and strive for greater balance. Marketers can incorporate the Gender Equality Measure (GEM)in Kantar advertising evaluation studies to assess the gender progressiveness of creative executions.

Getting Gender
Response Right

...when we review responses to advertising by gender - enjoyment, involvement and branding - we find no overall differences.

Women and men are more alike than different. While male and female brains can differ perhaps as much as 8% because of, for example, the differing sizes of structures and the brain's interconnectedness, the impact of such differences is not clear. What is clear is that socio-cultural gender effects can be powerful and impact perceptions, attitudes and decision-making.

Similarly, when we review responses to advertising by gender – enjoyment, involvement and branding – we find no overall differences. This is even the case where advertising is strongly targeted to one gender or the other. This implies that marketers could do better when they are creating and targeting ads at one particular gender.

There is very little overall difference between genders in response
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Source: Link US database (TV, digital & static). Metrics = Index of overall averages among male and female respondents

Overall, there is a strong relationship between how well or how poorly ads perform among women and men. However, enjoyment ratings (a leading indicator of emotional response) for individual executions can vary by gender.

Across universally well-liked ads and those preferred by one gender, research indicates that men and women may appreciate different elements. In-depth investigation of creative elements in our Link global database revealed few consistencies between ads preferred by men versus those preferred by women. Among the few significant differences we found were that women are slightly more likely to prefer ads that feature children, music and written message. They also favour ads where the prevailing narrative technique is slice-of-life. So, while gender preferences are evident, they are not simple, making testing essential.

Dollar Shave Club showcases a highly diverse set of men getting ready in its 2018 ad. It humorously demonstrates the power of progressive gender depictions, whether about women or men. As one YouTube comment put it: "A commercial geared towards men that didn't shame men in any way, shape, or form. Bravo!"

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Notably, far fewer ads featuring women try to be funny (just 22%, vs 51% featuring men). However, humour improves ad receptivity with both genders more than any other ad characteristic, so more brands should consider whether they can benefit from female satire and wit.

While our research found that breaking stereotypes generates ad engagement via surprise, not every ad targeted to women, for example, needs to have a female protagonist, or vice versa. In fact, the key is that the story resonates with everyone. By 'designing to the edges' and pushing design to better serve the needs of extreme users, the result can be something that simultaneously also serves those at the other extreme better. Such an inclusive design principle makes it possible for brands to cater to both masculine and feminine needs without requiring additional creative.

'Designing to the edges' makes it possible for brands to cater to both masculine and feminine needs.

Even this typically masculine Adidas ad approach, featuring physical action and themes of competition and mastery, showcases empowered female characters. Consequently, both men and women appreciate it. Female players in sports ads are still surprising. But in this ad, breaking stereotypes creates excitement with male viewers. Not surprisingly, female viewers enjoy the scenes with the female player.

It is the male viewers who are surprised

However, before a brand can devise an effective gender marketing strategy to reduce the risk of not getting it right, marketers must be clear where consumers view the brand on a gender progress spectrum and where the brand aspires to be. A large gap between the two requires more concerted marketing efforts to close the distance, than a smaller gap. For example, a brand that is perceived to be 'Fluctuating' – one that communicates in inconsistent or conflicted ways when it comes to gender – will require greater, longer-term investment to migrate to an 'Advocate' position, than one that is already perceived to be an 'Attainer'. More importantly, it requires many small steps. A large gap cannot be breached with one sweeping campaign. Brands that make this mistake typically receive backlash and criticism for inauthenticity.

This is what was observed with two different creative executions from the automotive brand, Audi. In a 2016 Spanish execution, a light-hearted animated spot called 'La Muñeca que Eligió Conducir' ('The doll who decided to drive'), the brand spoke as an 'Attainer'. Challenging gender stereotypes in a fun, light-hearted way, it literally put 'Barbie', the protagonist, behind the wheel. In another ad, a serious, hard-hitting piece entitled 'Daughter', which aired in the US in 2017, the brand spoke as an 'Advocate'. It depicted a young female go-karter whose future earning potential is questioned by her narrating father. Although the executions were for different markets, it is clear the brand got it right in the Spanish market where the ad was popular, and got it wrong in the US market where the ad was not well received.

Brands need to be aware of how they're perceived on the gender spectrum
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Navigating gender marketing with self-awareness for the brand, the audience and the sociocultural environment is key. What might be a subtle message in one market, can be a bold statement in another.

Nissan Saudi Arabia's 2018 #SheDrives campaign exhibited socio-cultural sensitivity, while still sending a message of leadership and support for the normalisation of female driving in a country where it has just been legalised. By inviting participation from a woman's male family members to give her the first driving lesson, the campaign (and movement) earned support from those who could have been its biggest objectors. Nissan strategically communicated a non-alienating, progressive gender message.

Decidedly, 'Advocate' brands in more liberal markets can promote progressive gender messages with less risk of backlash. Moreover, they can use such positioning as a point of differentiation. Both L'Oréal and Magnum showcased progressive viewpoints and challenged the traditional binary view of gender by featuring transgender women in their ads. Brands that tackle gender spectrum issues must do so authentically as audiences are attuned to and will disapprove of exploitation and spectacle as a means of creating engagement and discussion.

Nevertheless, for many brands it can be more effective to not make a point of gender or take a stance one way or the other. Brands like Apple and IKEA are gender 'Advocate' brands (in most markets), but they rarely make an overt point of gender. Still, they effectively cater to masculine and feminine needs. Sometimes actions speak louder than words.

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For some useful definitions of the gender spectrum, see: https://www.genderspectrum.org/quick-links/understanding-gender/

Getting Gender
Placement Right

From category to category, the role of women and men varies. As we saw in our second chapter, it should not be over-simplified. Even in a category where women are more commonly the primary purchasers, the decision-making, usage and influencing roles may have quite different gender profiles. Performance marketing campaigns focus more on purchasers, whether that's instore or via online retail channels. However, the roles of users and influencers tend to be more important for brand-building campaigns.

Gender is an important strategic media planning, targeting and optimisation variable
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Source: Getting Media Right 2018 % very/ somewhat confident

Gender should be a consideration in media placement and optimisation. It is possible to plan for and trade against gender-specific Gross Rating Points (GRPs). These capabilities are strongest in the digital space, where ads can be 100% gender-targeted. On TV, although most ads are bought against both genders, some are bought against a single gender, often women. Very few TV programmes have exclusively female audiences, but advertisers can target female-skewed channels (like Nova in Spain) or female-skewed shows (like the Colombian soap opera Bella Calamidades which runs on Nova). Alternatively, they can choose not to value male viewers within their cost calculations. Like TV, radio spots can be selected to skew by gender. Gender targeting is more commonplace in print, where very gender-skewed readerships are available in certain lifestyle magazines. But it is generally tougher to control with outdoor advertising, though some potential exists even here, for example, with male and female toilet advertising.

For targeting purposes, TV channels and shows can have significant gender skews
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Source: Kantar Media Spain

Once the campaign goes live, some gender-based optimisation may still be possible. While it can be tricky to make major changes at the channel level (given spend commitments), creative rotation is usually possible. Ideally, ads should be tested early and optimised for gender by designing to the edges. However, if ad testing shortly prior to launch shows strong skews by gender for specific ads, those skews can be reflected in creative-level media placements. This is easiest for digital, where it can be done last minute and most accurately. But is also possible in other channels to some extent.

Gender can be used as a targeting and optimisation variable to varying extents
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...if ad testing shows strong gender skews, that can be reflected in creative-level media placements.

Regardless of precise media placement, brands need to be aware that media 'spillover' occurs and messages will be shared by consumers. As such, media control can't be relied upon to contain communications which might be sexist or offensive. That said, when creative for a dual-usage product can't be improved pre-launch to appeal to a wider gender base, specific channel placement can help optimise campaign return-on-investment.

Whether target segments are needs-based, or psychographically or behaviourally defined, it is likely that they can be profiled by gender and that may help improve the accuracy of media placements by segment.

Paid media campaigns (mainly TV, digital & print) have less impact amongst women
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Source: CrossMedia cell-based normative database, 487 campaigns, US only

Unfortunately, the gender issues around media effectiveness are more complicated. Kantar's US CrossMedia database analysis uncovered a surprising finding: women are less impacted by paid media campaigns, including TV, digital and print. Lower digital performance among women is also evident from our global Brand Lift Insights norms data. Because aggregate gender responses to creative content are on par, targeting/placement issues and/ or in-market receptivity are more likely to blame.

Looking at our digital campaigns database, while digital effectiveness among men is relatively stable over time, we have recently seen a noticeable decline in effectiveness among women, so the gender gap is getting worse. In 2018 digital campaigns generated 28% less positive brand impact among women. While this is likely a mix of creative effects and media format selections, as digital media spend continues to rise around the world, this certainly points to a need for brands to review how they are marketing to women in the online space.

Even more concerningly, the gender gap in digital effectiveness seems to be widening

Impact delta over time

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Source: Brand Lift Insights Market norms global database

Women think that online targeting is less reliable than men

Fewer women think online ads are reliably relevant to them than men. This lack of relevance is underlined by women's less positive attitudes towards online ad formats that don't offer control, for example, those that aren't skippable. Brands looking to target women online need to ensure content is context-relevant and not invasive.

Source: AdReaction: The Art of Integration

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Globally, more women claim to skip online video ads whenever they can (65% vs 58% of men). However, US behavioural data from the VidMob social video measurement platform shows women can actually watch more online videos to completion than men. Behavioural gender differences can be larger for individual advertisers, and especially so for individual campaigns or ads. In these situations, it is important to understand the characteristics driving gender variation using copy testing and automatic coding of ad features using machine learning.

Beyond paid media, analysis of Kantar's global Connect touchpoint database indicates that women respond better to traditional channels like word-of-mouth and point-of-sale. This may be because these touchpoints have been optimised for females in ways that digital and other touchpoints haven't been or because of inherent gender inclinations towards different types of interactions.

More impact from word-of-mouth and point-of-sale among women
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Source: Connect global database (2017-2018)

These general trends were typified in a recent US smart speaker touchpoint study. While paid media touchpoints overall delivered similar impact on brands by gender, social media and recommendations had greater impact with women, as did websites and reviews with men. Brands can use such information to upweight or downweight touchpoints, based on the gender-skew of a brand and the desired correction.

Marketers should understand that gender is an important consideration in defining, targeting and optimising media. Alongside creative evaluation, campaign effectiveness testing by gender is fundamental to improving media efficiency.

Getting Gender
Programmes Right

Beyond an acknowledgement of gender issues in marketing, accurate targeting, non-stereotyped gender portrayals and appropriate media placement, businesses need to weigh in more deeply if they expect to reap the benefits of a more balanced approach. Leading businesses, such as Diageo, Proctor & Gamble and Unilever support initiatives like the Unstereotype Alliance, which is committed to eradicating harmful gender-based stereotypes, and 'Free the Bid', which is committed to diversifying the creative content production pipeline. They also promote diversity internally, fostering an aligned culture that can inclusively serve customers. At the end of 2017, 33% of Unilever's total workforce was female and 47% of management were women. Diageo's Executive Committee is 40% women. When these commitments come together, the result for businesses can be communications that better reflect brand ambitions and consumer expectations.

When these commitments come together, the result is marketing that is bold, progressive and leads change.

The result can also be marketing that is bold, progressive and leads change. Proctor & Gamble is helping to change perceptions and behaviour around domestic roles in India, where 70% of children believe it is the woman's job to do the laundry. With over two million petitioned commitments from men to help with the housework, its award-winning Ariel #ShareTheLoad campaign sends a powerful message without alienating men. Our research showed enjoyment and distinctiveness scores were just as high among men as women.

#EqualFuture, a campaign by ANZ bank in Australia concerning the gender pay gap, also demonstrates that good advertising can tackle sensitive gender topics head on. The documentary-style piece features boys and girls performing household chores. However, the girls are then paid less than the boys and their shocked responses are captured on camera. Interestingly, men were more apt to enjoy the ad, although women showed greater involvement.

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Diageo took a comprehensive approach to making change happen in their business. They firstly reviewed gender representation in their advertising, and discovered that women were under represented, but when they were well represented, the resulting ads were highly effective. They then sought to understand female portrayals in different cultures around the world, and developed a new framework for advertising development including better representation, characterisation and wider perspectives. They then used this framework to drive impact in the work that is produced and set up a method of measuring success.

This change in approach has also had clear business benefits – in this case ROI was up 48%.

On brands such as Baileys in the UK, Link ad testing has shown more recent advertising is resonating more powerfully with consumers – being more enjoyable, distinctive and driving brand appeal. This change in approach has also had clear business benefits – in this case ROI was up 48%.

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Best in class organisations understand that achieving gender progress is a journey, and therefore embed ongoing progressiveness programmes.

Recommendations

Brands that want to get gender right must start by being bold, by consciously considering gender issues and challenging the status quo. They must then acknowledge and embrace gender differences by recognising outdated, over-simplistic targeting assumptions that reinforce old decision-making paradigms. Progressive gender portrayals are where a brand can shine through the competition with aspirational and authoritative characters. Because women and men can respond differently to the same ad, brands must develop creative with consideration of feminine and masculine needs. By 'designing to the edges' brands can create ads that satisfy both. Next, brands must assess their media targeting and optimisation by gender with an understanding that women are less receptive to online media and greater efforts need to be made to engage them. Finally, with the acknowledgement that gender progress is a journey, committed brands can be best served by comprehensive gender progressiveness programmes, where effectiveness can be monitored and measured.

Gender is a delicate topic. Without data, it can be challenging to navigate. But as a topic of discussion across social, political, cultural and now commercial spheres, it is an issue that can no longer be ignored by brands. Backed with evidence, like that from BrandZ, showing how strongly male-skewed brands underperform, marketers can confidently make the fiscal case for rebalancing. Marketers can then develop a gender strategy which, for some, may include making decisions on how brand purpose translates to the gender space. Gender-neutral brands reap rewards of greater brand value and growth potential.

Whether brands take a stand for gender or make more subtle changes, brand communications are due a rebalancing, through a re-examination of targeting, portrayals in advertising, response to creative and media targeting. This new, different equilibrium is an opportunity for marketers to provide benefit to brands, consumers and society.

Methodology

AdReaction: Getting Gender Right explored the role of gender in terms of:

Creative response
Among over 20,000 Link ad tests

Brand equity
Among 9,560 global brands in 43 countries

Media effectiveness
Among over 500 CrossMedia and Connect multimedia campaigns, and over 5,000 digital effectiveness studies

Consumer advertising attitudes
Among a total of over 18,000 men and 18,000 women

AdReaction
The Art of Integration - over 14,500 people in 45 countries

AdReaction
Engaging Gen X, Y and Z - over 23,000 people in 39 countries

Consumer decision making
Among a total of over 70,000 people in 56 countries from 'Connected Life'

Marketer attitudes
Among over 450 global marketers from 'Getting Media Right'

Kantar ©2019